Strategy, systems and objectives: What's the vision, mission, structure, culture?
BA's may have to define or investigate tactics - or tactical options - that ensures their projects
align with an organisation's strategy, produce conclusions or recommendations, and/or measure
performance. Potential analysis includes measuring industry change, an organisation's internal
capabilities, assessing SWOT and Ansoff, and coordinating the tactical implementation of a strategy
using 7S, four view models, or the balanced scorecard. Prioritise it all using Eisenhower time: what
is important is seldom urgent and what is urgent is seldom important.
|Greiner's growth model
|McKinsey's 7s model
|Porter's Five Forces
|Kaplan's Balanced Scorecard
|Eisenhower time management
Investigate situation: What's the scope and system boundary? The problems, issues and
Uncovering problems and issues requires qualitative or quantitative analysis and documentation of
the results. Qualitative research focusses on the people involved, their hopes and fears, the range
of facts and opinions, and the perspectives on change (allies or opponents). Techniques for
qualitative research includes interviews, workshops and observations. Quantitative research focusses
on data metrics, data frequency, the numbers, data samples and testing. Techniques include
questionnaires, samples and document analysis. Documenting the results is more than writing up
formal reports and can include mind maps, rich pictures, and context diagrams.
Consider perspectives: Who is everyone involved?
Working with stakeholders is crucial. The BA must identify stakeholders and interested parties so
that a full range of views can be understood and later conflict avoided in the case of new or
missing points of view. Once the people involved are known then examining their levels of influence
and areas of concern allows the BA to identify areas of potential conflict, misunderstanding,
communication and even resistance. Finally, stakeholder management techniques carried out during a
project help everyone to work together in a changing environment, including planning, conflict
resolution and principled negotiation. A 'Stakeholder Wheel' groups stakeholders as customers,
partners, suppliers, regulators, employees, managers, owners and competitors. For analysis consider
organisation diagrams, CATWOE and BAM. For negotiating, establish a party's BATNA (Best Alternative
To Negotiated Agreement).
|Stakeholder power interest
|Business activity modelling
|Thomas Kilmann conflict modes
|Ury and Fisher's BATNA
Requirements III, Development: So what are we doing?
Requirements need to be structured and documented into a specification. That usually contains an
introduction, functional model(s), data model(s), a catalogue of requirements, and glossary. Each
item in the catalogue needs an ID, name, owner, stakeholder, priority, description, acceptance
criteria and validation. Baselining, configuration and version controls are techniques used to
manage changing requirements. A behaviour tree is a useful method of managing large numbers of
requirements and mappin dependencies between them.
|Requirements user case
|Behaviour tree integration
|Behaviour tree mapping
Manage change: How is it going?
The last stage of the BA process is to introduce and/or manage the changes and realise and manage
the benefits of change, and to articulate the benefits. It involves cultural analysis, unfreezing
and transition, the SARAH model (Shock, Anger, Rejection, Acceptance, Hope) and/or a learning cycle
or new competency model. In benefits analysis, a project can so often be managed on objectives of
delivery dates and budget that the original business objectives are lost. A benefits map can show
how changes lead to benefits, and a benefits chart showing changes and benefits against time can
help manage a project. A benefits plan consists of (a) vision, (b) map and chart, (c) performance
measures, (d) financial analysis, (e) dependencies between benefits, (f) benefit tracking and
reporting and (g) owners tasked with achieving the benefits. While a project plan is concerned with
technical issues and activities required to execute a project, the benefits plan is concerned with
the activites required to achieve the benefits. The theory is major project decisions ought to be
made with reference to achieving the benefits plan as well as the project plan.
|SARAH change model
|Deal Kennedy culture
|Honey Mumford culture
|Conscious competence model
|Kaplan's Balanced scorecard